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Coins of ancient India

The earliest Indian coinage began about 600 BC in the Ganges valley and adjacent regions with a series of punchmarked issues. A brief synopsis of the history of all the different cultures listed below is in the works. The organization follows Mitchiner's Ancient and Classical World and Non-Islamic States.

 



Successors of Ajatashatru (462 - 414 BC)
AR Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 3939v.; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 294v. (type III I A 9)
19 mm.
3.30 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: At least 5 punched symbols including: Sun; 6-armed symbol; three 'lotus buds', each containing a taurine symbol; three fish (?) or plants (?) arranged geometrically around a central anulet; plant symbol.
Reverse: 3 punched symbols: Eye (?), four-fingered hand print (?) and sun.


Successors of Ajatashatru (462 - 414 BC)
AR Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 3983v.; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 299v. (type III II A 6)
24 x 20 mm.
3.27 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 6 punched symbols including: 2 suns; 6-armed symbol; cartouche containing elephant goad, fish (?) and taurine symbol; railed tree of taurine symbols with fish (?), left, underneath; standard (?) with tail curling to the left.
Reverse: Blank.


Period of Saisunaga and Kalasoka (circa 420 BC)
AR Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 3997v.; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 305v. (type III IV A 1)
22 mm.
3.11 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Overstruck on earlier issue. Traces of at least 9 punched symbols including: 2 suns; 6-armed symbol; elephant; dog surrounded by taurine symbols.
Reverse: Traces of undertype; numerous bankers marks.


Period of the Eight Sons of Mahapadma Nanda (circa 340 - 320 BC)
AR Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4054v.; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 442v. (type IV XXXII A 1)
22 x 14 mm.
3.40 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 6 punched symbols: Sun, 6-armed symbol, plant on hill symbol, humped bull, elephant and taurine (?) symbol.
Reverse: Blank.

Upper Ganges Valley

Kuru and Panchala

Anonymous (circa 400 - 350 BC)
AE Satamana
Mitchiner ACW 4069
14 x 25 x 5 mm.
11.54 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Septa-radiate symbol stamped at each end of bar.
Reverse: Blank.


Anonymous (circa 400 - 350 BC)
AR Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW -
14 x 11 mm.
1.58 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Triskeles with crescents and dots.
RReverse: Blank.

IIndus Valley

Taxila and Gandhara


Anonymous (circa 500 - 300 BC)
AR Satamana
Mitchiner ACW 4076
43 x 10 x 3 mm.
10.67 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Septa-radiate symbol at each end; three other punchmarks (single pellet, heart shape with two pellets [Jalalabad (?)], two crescents, one pellet, two 'insects' [Taxila (?)].
Reverse: Blank.


Anonymous (circa 500 - 300 BC)
AR Satamana
Mitchiner ACW 4073v.
36 x 10 x 4 mm.
8.08 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Septa-radiate symbol at each end.
Reverse: Blank.


Anonymous (circa 500 - 300 BC)
AR 1/8 Satamana
Mitchiner ACW 4079
14 mm.
1.25 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Septa-radiate symbol.
Reverse: Blank.


Anonymous (circa 500 - 300 BC)
AR 1/8 Satamana
Mitchiner
14 x 12 mm.
0.92 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Septa-radiate symbol.
Reverse: Blank.

NNarbada Valley

Avanti Kingdom


Anonymous (circa 400 - 312 BC)
AR 1/2 Karshapana (Animal series)
Mitchiner ACW 4107
12 x 8 mm.
1.56 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Very stylized fish above lion; taurine punchmarks.
Reverse: Taurine punchmark.
NNote: Although attributed to the period of the Avanti Kingdom by Mitchiner, and to the area around Malwa, other sources report that these coins are only found to the northeast, in the Surasena area (Mathura). [see Jain, Ancient Indian Coinage, page 46]

Saurashtra Penninsula

EEastern Deccan

Mauryan Empire (321 - 187 BC)


Period of Chandragupta (circa 321 - 297 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series V)
Mitchiner ACW 4215; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 523 (type V XVI C 112)
15 x 12 mm.
3.43 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 5 punched symbols: Sun, 6-armed symbol, four bull heads around pellet, figure walking left and dog or hare within crescent.
RReverse: Four bull heads around pellet (Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 14).


GGeneral series (circa 321 - 187 BC)
AR One Ratti
Mitchiner ACW 4272; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC -
4 mm.
0.11 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 1 punched symbol: 6-armed symbol.
Reverse: Blank.


Period of Ashoka (circa 272 - 232 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series Vb)
Mitchiner ACW 4229 - 4234v.; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 510v. (type V XIV A 21)
11 x13 mm.
3.40 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: At least 5 punched symbols: Sun; 6-armed symbol; Ashoka's regal symbol; tree (?), bull.
Reverse: Pellet surrounded by 4 crescents (Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 478) stamped over rooster on stupa symbol (Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 265); 2 large crescents with pellet weakly struck.


Anonymous (circa 270-150 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VI)
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 544v. (type VI IV B 5)
15 mm.
3.08 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse:


Anonymous (circa 270-150 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VIb)
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 560v.
16 x 12 mm.
3.17 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse:


Anonymous (circa 270-150 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VIb)
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 566
12 x 13 mm.
2.38 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse:


Anonymous (circa 270-150 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VI)
Mitchiner ACW 4185; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 571 (type VI IV E 27)
12 x 11 mm.
3.34 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 5 punched symbols: Sun, 6-armed symbol, humped bull, stupa, 'm' within rectangle.
Reverse: Four bull heads around pellet (Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 14).


Anonymous (circa 270-150 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VI)
Mitchiner ACW 4195-4197; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 574 (type VI IV F 145)
15 x 12 mm.
3.42 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 5 punched symbols: Sun, 6-armed symbol, hill symbol, plant symbol and humped bull.
Reverse: Pellet surrounded by 2 crescents and 2 arrow-type symbols (Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 473 'Taxila' symbol).


[[4195_5]
AR Karshapana


Anonymous (circa 270-150 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VI)
Mitchiner ACW 4195-4197; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 574 (type VI IV F 145)
14 x16 mm.
3.28 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 5 punched symbols: Sun, 6-armed symbol, hill symbol, plant symbol and humped bull.
Reverse: Pellet surrounded by 2 crescents and 2 arrow-type symbols (Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 473 'Taxila' symbol).


Anonymous (circa 270-150 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VI)
Mitchiner ACW 4195-4197; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 574 (type VI IV F 145)
16 x 13 mm.
3.34 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 5 punched symbols: Sun, 6-armed symbol, hill symbol, plant symbol and humped bull.
Reverse: Pellet surrounded by 2 crescents and 2 arrow-type symbols (Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 473 'Taxila' symbol).


Anonymous (circa 210-190 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VII)
Mitchiner ACW 4247v.; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 584v. (type VII I A 18)
14 mm.
3.42 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 5 punched symbols: 3 separate human figures, dog and Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 18.
Reverse: 'Standard' (Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 474).


Anonymous (circa 210-190 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VII)
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 586-587v.
14 x 11 mm.
2.68 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse:


Anonymous (circa 210-190 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VII)
Mitchiner ACW 4245v.; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 590 (type VII II C 24)
12 x15 mm.
2.42 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 3 punched symbols: 3 figures, rooster on stupa and geometrical symbol.
Reverse: Rooster on stupa symbol (Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 477).


Anonymous (circa 210-190 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VII)
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 591
10 x 15 mm.
2.57 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse:


Anonymous (circa 210-190 BC)
AR Karshapana (Series VII)
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 591
14 mm.
2.68 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse:


Anonymous (circa 210-190 BC)
AAR Karshapana (Series VII (?))
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 594 type variant (?)
13 x 12 mm.
2.72 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
RReverse:

 



Period of Pushyamitra Sunga (circa 187 - 151 BC)
AR Karshapana (Pataliputra mint)
Mitchiner ACW 4305; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC 576 (type VI IV G 122)
15 x 11 mm.
3.39 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 5 punched symbols: Sun, 6-armed symbol, humped bull with standard, stupa and railed tree.
RReverse: Square divided by cross (Gupta/Hardaker ISPC mark 20).


Die position=3h
OObverse: Cross left, three-arched hill (chaitya) with crescent, above; railed tree, right.
RReverse: Elephant left, over symbol. Swastika with bull head above.


Anonymous/Symbol series (circa 150 - 75 BC)
AE Half Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4620v.
18 x 19 mm.
5.26 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: 6-armed symbol, railed tree to left, standard to right; rectangles containing frogs and fish above and below, taurine symbol and swastika to left, Ujjain symbol to right.
Reverse: Ujjain symbol (4-armed 'swirls' within annulets).


Later Sunga kings (circa 150 BC - 100 AD)
AE Half Karshapana
Magnetic (!)
Mitchiner ACW 4381v.
16 x 13 mm.
2.31 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Horse (?) left.
Reverse: Cross left, three-arched hill (chaitya) with crescent, above; railed tree, right.

Northern India during the post-Mauryan Period
(220 BC - 80 AD)

Northern Pakistan

Pushkalavati


Anonymous early series of Pushkalavati (circa 220 - 185 BC)
AE Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4389
21 x 18 mm.
7.75 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Mound of 9 pellets, stupa with crescent above; river and other symbols below.
Reverse: Blank.


Anonymous late series of Pushkalavati (circa 185 - 160 BC)
AE 1 1/2 Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4402
24 x 17 mm. (rectangular)
7.85 gm.
Die position=6h

AE Half Karshapana (Later series: circa 180 - 160 BC)
Mitchiner ACW 4418
22 x 21 mm.
5.30 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Railed tree or floral ornament.
Reverse: Cross, right; traces of three-arched hill (chaitya), left.


AE Quarter Karshapana (Later series: circa 180 - 160 BC)
Mitchiner ACW 4422
14 mm.
1.92 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Three-arched hill (chaitya), crescent above; 'ta' right.
Reverse: Three-arched hill (chaitya), crescent above; 'ta' left.


Punjab States: Northern Group

Kuninda


Later issues in the name of Amoghabhuti (circa 20 BC - 80 AD)
AE Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4458
17 mm.
2.40 gm.
Die position=5h
Obverse: Deer right, ancillary symbols around; Brahmi legend.
Reverse: Stupa with pellet above, river beneath; swastika, ancillary symbols around. No Karosthi legend (?).

 

Punjab States: Southern Group

States in the Mathura Region

East of the Punjab States: Panchalas of Ahichhatra

Early Kings


Period of early kings/Jyeshthamitra (?) (circa 150 - 75 BC)
AE 1/4 Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4535v.
13 x 12 mm.
1.30 gm.
Die position=5h
Obverse: Panchala symbols; Brahmi legend.
Reverse: Railed tree with other symbols.


Period of early kings/Jyeshthamitra (?) (circa 150 - 75 BC)
AE 1/4 Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4535v.
11 mm.
0.96 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Panchala symbols; Brahmi legend.
Reverse: Railed tree with other symbols.

 

Middle Group of Mitra Kings


Bhumimitra (circa 50 - 1 BC)
AE Double Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4545
25 mm.
14.71 gm.
Die position=11h
Obverse: Deity with snake's hair holding snake, standing on pedestal; columns or trees to either side.
Reverse: Panchala symbols; Brahmi legend, 'Bhumimitra'.


The Andhras (Satavahanas) of the Deccan

The Early Satakarnis


Satakarni Family Issues (circa 39 BC - 220 AD)
Billon Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4941-4952, 4963-4965, 4967, 4969-4970
18 x 21 mm.
3.34 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Elephant right; Brahmi legend.
Reverse: Satavahana symbol.


Gautamiputra Sri Yajna Satakarni (circa 172 - 201 AD)
Billon Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4967
18 mm.
2.82 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Elephant right; Brahmi legend.
Reverse: Satavahana symbol.

The Andhrabhrityas (Andhra Feudatries)

Elephant Maharathis of the Lower Tungabhadra Valley

Civic Coinage (30 BC - 70 AD)
PB Unit
Mitchiner ACW -
30 x 33 mm.
23.89 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Elephant left; Nandipada symbol (!) and Brahmi legend, above.
Reverse: Railed tree.
Note: This is a modern forgery.

Chutus of Banavasi

Civic Coinage (160 - 345 AD)
PB Double Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4971
28 mm.
11.11 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Eight-arched hill (chaitya); Brahmi legend.
Reverse: Sacred railed tree; traces of nandipana symbol on each side.


Civic Coinage (160 - 345 AD)
PB Double Karshapana
Mitchiner ACW 4971v.
27 mm.
14.67 gm.
Die position=1h
Obverse: Six-arched hill (chaitya); Brahmi legend.
Reverse: Sacred railed tree; river (?) above and to right.

The Cheras (Keralaputras)


Cheras of Kerala (?) (circa 100 BC - 400 AD (?))
AE Unit
Mitchiner NIS 800v. type
18 x 16 mm.
5.33 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Elephant right.
Reverse: Bow and arrow.


Cheras of Kerala (?) (circa 100 BC - 400 AD (?))
AE Unit
Mitchiner NIS 801v. type
11 x 10 mm.
0.81 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Horse right.
Reverse: Bow and arrow.


Cheras of Kerala (?) (circa 100 BC - 400 AD (?))
AE Unit
Mitchiner NIS 801v. type
13 x 10 mm.
0.61 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Horse left.
Reverse: Bow and arrow.


Cheras of Kerala (?) (circa 100 BC - 400 AD (?))
AE Unit
Magnetic (!)
Mitchiner NIS 801v. type
11 x 10 mm.
1.40 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Elephant (?) right.
Reverse: Bow and arrow.


Cheras of Kerala (?) (circa 100 BC - 400 AD (?))
AE Unit
Mitchiner NIS 801v. type
13 x 10 mm.
2.00 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Elephant (?) right.
Reverse: Bow and arrow.


Cheras of Kerala (?) (circa 100 BC - 400 AD (?))
AE Unit
Magnetic (!)
Mitchiner NIS 801v. type
12 x 10 mm.
0.92 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Horse right; star above.
Reverse: Bow and arrow.

 

Non-Pandyan types

Indo-Roman coinage

Ceylon


Anonymous (227 - 306 AD)
PB Drachm
Mitchiner ACW 5075v.
14 mm.
3.27 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Elephant standing right (?).
Reverse: 'Satavahana' symbol.

The Northern and Western Deccan
during the Vakataka-Kadamba period

The Early Kalachuris


Sankaragana (circa 575 - 600 AD) (?)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner ACW 5093v. (?)
12 mm.
1.91 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Crude bust right in Gupta style; legend (?).
Reverse: Brahmi (?) legend.

Gurjuras


Rana Vigraha (circa 640 AD)
AR Fractional Drachm
Mitchiner ACW 5108 - 5110; Mitchiner NIS 249 - 251
8 mm.
0.32 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Brahmi (?) legend around three dots
Reverse: Traces of design (?).

The Southeastern Deccan and Mysore under the Pallavas and Vishnukundins

Vishnukundins


Anonymous (circa 475 - 615 AD)
AE/FE Panchi (magnetic)
Mitchiner ACW 5122-5125v.
22 mm.
8.45 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Sankh shell between standards. Ornamental border.
Reverse: Lion standing right with paw raised.


Vishnukundins: Anonymous (circa 475 - 615 AD)
AE/FE Panchi (magnetic)
Mitchiner NIS 628-632 type
18 x 19 mm.
6.33 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Sankh shell between standards; ornamental border.
Reverse: Lion standing right with paw raised.


Vishnukundins: Anonymous (circa 475 - 615 AD)
AE/FE Panchi (magnetic)
Mitchiner NIS 628-632 type
17 mm.
5.16 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Sankh shell between standards; ornamental border.
Reverse: Lion standing right with paw raised.

Vishnukundins/Chalukyas


Sri Modhawa (?) (circa 550 AD (?))
AR/FE Unit (magnetic)
Mitchiner ACW -
14 mm.
1.72 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Bull, right. Brahmi legend (?).
Reverse: Sankh shell between standards. Ornamental border.

Eastern Chalukya issues of Vishnukundin type

 


Uncertain ruler of the Kalinga region (circa 650 AD)
AE/FE Unit (magnetic)
Mitchiner ACW 5131v.
11 mm.
0.80 gm.
Die position=1h
Obverse: Lion standing right with uncertain legend above.
Reverse: Sankh shell with lamp on each side; ornamental border.

 

Civic Coinage (300 - 340 AD)
AE Tetradrachm (Early series, division 2)
Mitchiner ACW 4711 - 4715
25 mm.
10.62 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Karttikeya standind facing, holding sceptre; peacock on right. In Brahmi:'Yaudheya Ganasya Jaya' (Victory to the Yaudheya people).
Reverse: Goddess standing with hand on hip, wearing transparent garment; lotus and nandipana symbol in field.


Civic Coinage (300 - 340 AD)
AE Tetradrachm (Late series, division 1)
Mitchiner ACW 4719 - 4721
22 mm.
10.30 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Karttikeya standind facing, holding sceptre; peacock on right. In Brahmi:'Yaudheya Ganasya Jaya' (Victory to the Yaudheya people).
RReverse: Goddess standing with hand on hip, wearing transparent garment.

Nagas of Narwar


Ganapati Naga (circa 340 AD)
AE Unitbr
Mitchiner ACW 4739 - 4750
8 mm.
0.67 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Humped bull standing left.
Reverse: In Brahmi:''Maharaja Sri Ganendra'.


Ganapati Naga (circa 340 AD)
AE Unit
Mitchiner ACW 4739 - 4750
7 mm.
0.18 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Humped bull standing left.
Reverse: In Brahmi:'Maharaja Sri Ganendra'.

The Gupta Empire and its successors

Gupta Empire


Samudragupta (circa 335 - 380 AD)
AV Stater
Mitchiner ACW 4780
20 mm.
7.50 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: King standing left, holding long sceptre in left hand, right hand lowered to an altar; Garuda standard to left. In Brahmi:'Samudra' in right field; and partial marginal legend.
Reverse: Goddess Lakshmi enthroned facing, holding cornucopia; symbol to left. In Brahmi:'Parakramah' to right.


Kumaragupta I (414 - 455 AD)
AR Drachm (Western provinces Garuda type)
Mitchiner ACW 4845 - 4854
11 mm.
2.03 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Bust of king, right.
Reverse: Formalized Garuda standing facing with spread wings. In Brahmi:'Parama-bhagavata rajahiraja Sri Kumaragupta Mahendraditya'.


Skandagupta (455 -480 AD)
AR Drachm (Western provinces Bull type)
Mitchiner ACW 4879 - 4882
12 mm.
1.82 gm.
Die position=3h
Obverse: Bust of king, right.
Reverse: Humped bull seated right. In Brahmi:'Parama-bhagavata Sri Skandagupta Kramaditya'.

Successor states in Saurashtra and the west

Kingdom of the Maitrakas of Valabhi


Anonymous (470 - 800 AD)
Billon Drachm (Later issues)
Mitchiner ACW 4897 - 4898
11 mm.
1.95 gm.
Die position=7h
Obverse: Bust of king, right.
Reverse: Trident with curved prongs and side-arm. Corrupt Brahmi legend.

SSuccessor states in Malwa


Hephthalites in Malwa (?) (c.475-530 CE)
AE Fraction
Mitchiner ACW 4902v. (?)
6 x 7 mm.
0.24 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Sankh shell; crescents.
Reverse: Inscription (?); tamgha (?)

Vardhanas (Pushyabhutis)


Siladitya, Harshavardhana (606 - 647 AD)
AR rachm
Mitchiner ACW 4933 - 4937
14 mm.
2.25 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Bust of king, left.
Reverse: Formalized Garuda standing facing with spread wings. In Brahmi:''Vijitavanir-avanapati Sri Siladitya divam jayati'.

 

Gurjura Kingdom of Sindh

 


Anonymous (circa 570 - 700 AD)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 215v.
22 mm.
3.73 gm.
Die position=3h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right.
Reverse: Stylized fire altar.


Anonymous (circa 570 - 700 AD)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 216v.
22 mm.
3.63 gm.
Die position=3h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right.
Reverse: Stylized fire altar.


Anonymous (circa 570 - 700 AD)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 217v.
22 mm.
3.69 gm.
Die position=8h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right.
RReverse: Stylized fire altar.


AAnonymous (circa 570 - 700 AD)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 217v.
22 mm.
3.90 gm.
Die position=4h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right.
Reverse: Stylized fire altar.


Anonymous (circa 570 - 700 AD)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 218v.
22 mm.
4.12 gm.
Die position=7h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right.
RReverse: Stylized fire altar.

 

Imperial Pratiharas



Anonymous (circa 780 - 980 AD)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 364v.
20 mm.
3.97 gm.
Die position=10h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right. Brahmi Sri DaMa (?)
Reverse: Stylized fire altar.

 

Spalapati Deva (circa 800 - 880 AD)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner ACW 1576 - 1579
18 mm.
3.38 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Horseman holding spear riding right.
Reverse: Humped bull with Brahmi name above.

 


Samanta Deva (circa 850 - 970 AD)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner ACW 1585
20 x 19 mm.
3.20 gm.
Die position=3h
Obverse: Stylized horseman holding spear riding right.
Reverse: Stylized humped bull with Brahmi name above.




Rajput Dynasties of Saurashtra and Gujarat

Saindhava/Chalukya/Abhira/Chapa series of Saurashtra and Gujarat


Anonymous (circa 800 - 950 AD)
AAR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 419-422
18 mm.
4.07 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right.
RReverse: Stylized fire altar.

Chaulukya series of Saurashtra and Gujarat


Anonymous (circa 950 - 1050 AD) AR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 423-426
17 mm.
4.20 gm.
Die position=8h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right.
RReverse: Stylized fire altar.


AAnonymous (circa 950 - 1050 AD)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 423-426
17 mm.
3.98 gm.
Die position=3h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right.
RReverse: Stylized fire altar.

Chaulukya/Paramara series of Saurashtra, Gujarat and Malwa


Anonymous (circa 1050 - 1150 AD)
AAR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 428
14 mm.
4.57 gm.
Die position=3h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right.
RReverse: Stylized fire altar.

Silaharas of North Konkan


Anonymous (circa 1000 - 1200 AD)AR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 651v.
14 mm.
4.42 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: Stylized Sasanian-like bust, right. Brahmi legend.
ReReverse: Stylized horseman spearing two fallen enemies.

Anonymous Bull and Horseman Coinage of Rajputana and the Punjab


'Samanta Deva' (circa 1100 - 1200 AD)
AR Drachm
Mitchiner NIS 477 - 483v. (base coin)
14 and 8 mm.
4.12 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Stylized horseman, right.
RReverse: Stylized bull seated left but with later metallic addition; another specimen reads 'adl (just) in Arabic on the smaller coin. Unusual.

Western Gangas


Anonymous (circa 1080 - 1138 AD (and later))
AV Fanam
Mitchiner NIS 703
7 mm.
0.36 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse: Caparisoned elephant standing right.
RReverse: Ornamental floral scroll.

Cholas of Thanjavur


Uttama Chola (973 - 985 AD)
AR Kahavanu
Mitchiner NIS 713 - 725
19 mm.
4.24 gm.
Die position=1h
Obverse: Tiger seated facing right, yelling at two fish; bow and torch behind. Torch to right of fish; umbrella above.
Reverse: Nagari legend 'Uttama Cholah'.


Rajaraja Chola (985 - 1014 AD)
AE Unit
Mitchiner NIS 730 - 731
20 mm.
3.93 gm.
Die position=10h
Obverse: King standing. Torch (?) on left; group of spheres with central dots on right, surmounted by a crescent.
Reverse: King enthroned; Nagari legend.


Rajaraja Chola (985 - 1014 AD)
AE Unit Mitchiner NIS 732 - 736
19 mm.
3.41 gm.
Die position=12h
Obverse: King standing. Torch (?) on left; group of spheres without central dots on right, surmounted by a crescent.
ReReverse: King enthroned; Nagari legend.

Gahadavalas of Kanauj and Banares


Govinda Chandra (1114 - 1154 AD)
AV ter
Mitchiner NIS 490-496
20 mm.
4.18 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Four-armed Lakshmi seated, facing.
Reverse: Nagari legend.


Govinda Chandra (1114 - 1154 AD)
AV tater
Mitchiner NIS 490-496
17 mm.
3.91 gm.
Die position=7h
Obverse: Four-armed Lakshmi seated, facing.
Reverse: Nagari legend.
NoNote: Later style.

 



'Chandradeva Kapa' (?) (circa 1215 AD)
AE Jital
Mitchiner NIS ?, Tye #64
13 mm.
3.20 gm.
Die position=12h (?)
Obverse: Stylized winged horse (?).
RReverse: Stylized bull; Nagari legend. Specimen number 182 from excavation in Badla (1881).

Sultanate of Delhi


Ghiyath al-Din Balban (1265 - 1287 AD)
Billon 2 Gani
Mitchiner WOI 2526
15 mm.
3.48 gm.
Die position=5h
Obverse: Arabic legend surrounded by Nagari legend.
Reverse: Arabic legend.


'Ala' ud-Din Mohammed Shah II (1296 - 1316 AD)
Billon 2 Gani
Mitchiner WOI 2569
15 mm.
3.53 gm.
Die position=6h
Obverse: Arabic legend.
Reverse: Arabic legend.


'Ala' ud-Din Mohammed Shah II (1296 - 1316 AD)
AR Tanka AH 704 (1304 /1305 AD)
Mitchiner WOI 2547
27 mm.
10.85 gm.
Die position=10h
Obverse: Arabic legend.
RReverse: Arabic legend.


Qutb ud-Din Mubarak (1316 - 1320 AD)
Billon 8 Gani AH 719 (1319/1320 AD)
Mitchiner WOI ?
15 x 15 mm.
3.60 gm.
Die position=2h
Obverse: Arabic legend.
RReverse: Arabic legend.


MMohammed III ibn Tughluq (1325 - 1351 AD)
AE Tanka / Token Currency (1329 AD)
Mitchiner WOI ?
21 mm.
9.07 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Arabic legend.
RReverse: Persian legend.


Vijayanagar Kingdom


UUnknown Sangama Ruler (1357 - 1450 AD)
Billon Kasu
Unpublished
16 mm.
3.59 gm.
Die position=3h
Obverse: Monkey god Hanuman running right.
RReverse: Stylized elephant (?) right, crescent above.


Bahamids of Kulbarga


Firoz Shah (1397 - 1421 AD)
AE Paisa
Khan 105
17 mm.
5.28 gm.
Die position=2h
Obverse: Arabic legend.
Reverse: Arabic legend.


Ahmad Shah II (1435 - 1457 AD)
AE Heavy Paisa
Khan -
21 mm.
13.39 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Arabic legend.
Reverse: Arabic legend.

Kingdom of Juanpur


Husain Shah (1458 - 1479 AD)
AE Tanka
Mitchiner WOI ?
17 mm.
9.71 gm.
Die position=1h
Obverse: Arabic legend.
RReverse: Arabic legend.

Pandyas of Madurai


Bhuvaneka Viran Samarakolakalan (circa 1470 AD)
AE Unitbr
Mitchiner NIS 1151 - 1152
15 mm.
3.11 gm.
Die position=10h
Obverse: Garuda running left.
RReverse: Legend.

Mughal Empire


Jalal al-Din Akbar (1556 - 1605 AD)
AR Rupee AH 983 (1576/1577 AD)
Mitchiner WOI 3040
27 mm.
11.43 gm.
Die position=11h
Obverse: Arabic legend.
RReverse: Arabic legend.


Nayakas of Tinnevelly


Anonymous (circa 1650 AD)
AAE Two Kasu
Mitchiner NIS 1240
13 mm.
2.50 gm.
Die position=9h
Obverse: Venkatesvara standing beneath doorway.
Reverse: Legend.


Anonymous (circa ___ BC)
AR Karshapana
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC ___ (type ___)
21 x 20 mm.
1.72 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse:


Anonymous (circa ___ BC)
AR Karshapana
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC ___ (type ___)
14 x 16 mm.
3.05 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse:


Anonymous (circa ___ BC)
AR Karshapana
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC ___ (type ___)
18 x 17 mm.
2.94 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse:


Anonymous (circa ___ BC)
AR Karshapana
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC ___ (type ___)
15 x 13 mm.
2.61 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse:


Anonymous (circa ___ BC)
AAR Karshapana
Gupta/Hardaker ISPC ___ (type ___)
16 x 13 mm.
2.35 gm.
Die position=n/a
Obverse:
Reverse: